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Home / Instruction & Assessment / Personal & Sexual Health

Personal & Sexual Health

To be safe and healthy
To learn about oneself
To accept changes and differences
To choose well-being

Personal & Sexual Health Education

B.C. provides comprehensive sexual health education to all students from Kindergarten through secondary school. Most personal safety and sexual health content can be found in Physical Health Education (PHE) K-10. Broader topics of social justice and development are found in Social Studies (SS) and Science (SC). Topics such as honouring diversity and creating safe, caring and inclusive environments are every educator’s responsibility to address and promote K-12: see www.SOGIeducation.org for more information.  

The goal of comprehensive sexual health education is for all people to gain the skills and knowledge required to maintain healthy bodies, healthy relationships, a healthy body image, and to know what to do in unsafe situations (Sexual Information Education Council of Canada). It is standard practice (Canadian Guidelines for Sexual Health Information) to have all genders in class together. This builds empathy, combats mis-information and is inclusive of all diversity that exists.

Quality sexual health education has a direct impact on preventing negative outcomes, and promoting positive ones (including delayed age of first sexual intercourse, less likely to take risks, more likely to know what to do in an unsafe situation, McCreary Centre Society (BC Adolescent Healthy Survey).

Sexual Health Quick Links

K-10 Sexual Health at a Glance

Grade
Personal Safety
Puberty
Identity
Disease
Body Image
Violence
Sexual Decision Making
K
Personal safety, abuse prevention, emotions
1
Personal safety, abuse prevention, emotions
2
Personal safety, abuse prevention, boundaries *additional lesson for names of genitals required 
3
Personal safety, abuse prevention, online, friendship *additional lesson for names of genitals
4
Personal safety, online, friendships, lures
Puberty
Sexual Identity
Comm/non-comm diseases
Media messaging/body image
5
Personal safety, online, friendships, lures
Puberty
Sexual Identity
Comm/non-comm diseases
6
Relationships, boundaries, lures, online
Puberty
Sexual Identity
Practices that reduce STIs
Analyze health messages  intentions to influence behaviour
7
Boundaries, healthy/unhealthy relationships, online, getting out of risky situations,
Puberty
Sexual Identity
Practices that reduce STIs
Factors that influence healthy choices
8
Boundaries, healthy/unhealthy relationships, online, getting out of risky situations, 
Puberty
Sexual Identity
Practices that reduce STIs, condom demo
Marketing/advertising tactics
Boundaries, sextortion, relationships, online
Healthy sexual decision making, contraception demo
9
Boundaries, healthy/unhealthy relationships, online, getting out of risky situations, sextorion
Puberty
Sexual Identity
Practices that reduce STIs, condom demo
Health messages influence on well-being
Protect against harm, exploitation, abuse, relationships
Healthy sexual decision making, contraception demo
10
Promoting Healthy Relationships (digital version), Sextortion (powerpoint)
Puberty
Sexual Identity
Practices that reduce STIs, condom demo
Health messages influence on well-being
Protect against harm, exploitation, abuse, relationships
Healthy sexual decision making, contraception demo
KIDS IN THE KNOW PROGRAM K-10

Quick References

Questions about teaching, learning, resources or technology?

Contact the Learning Line

Instructional Time

The ‘Health’ component of Physical Health Education (PHE) accounts for 30-50% of PHE.

An adequate amount of time is expected to be dedicated to personal safety/sexual health content. Spread out lessons during the year and book classroom space to carry out lessons Use the ‘Scope and Sequences’  to help you plan.

Suggested minimum lessons:

  • Grades K-3: Six-Eight lessons
  • Grades 4-6: Six-Eight lessons
  • Grades 7-10: Eight-Eleven lessons

Experts and Agencies

For  more complex topics (which may include puberty, sexual decision making, or sexual identity) experts may be utilized in some cases, to supplement the foundational work that teachers have already done.

Support Documents

  • NLPS partners with outside agencies like the RCMP, Red Cross, Haven, VI Crisis Society, and Island health with targeted prevention programs and student workshops.

See Agency Scope and Sequence

Letter For Parents

Some schools may choose to send letters home to families at the beginning of the year (or before the sexual health units are taught). It is not required, as it is curriculum, but it can help ensure continuity and encourage parents to keep the conversations going at home about this important content.

Alternate Delivery of Sensitive MAterial

  • If parents prefer to address sensitive material related to sexuality and reproduction in the Physical and Health Education curriculum outside of the classroom they must follow the Administrative Procedure linked at the bottom. Students may not ‘opt out’ of this content. Alternative delivery does not apply to any other BC curriculum, nor does it apply to creating inclusive environments and honouring diversity.

    In the link below you will find the NLPS  Administrative Procedure, a detailed outline of the curriculum, letters to send home to parents, and a request form, in the case of alternative delivery.

Program Requirements

 

It is expected that teachers will deliver the  basic/fundamental lessons in PHE about personal safety, decision making, technology, boundaries etc… K-10 using the ‘Kids in the Know’ (or similar) resource. To access online version of Kids in the Know, made an account using this link

Support Documents

  • Each school has a complete kit. Click here to order more materials and booklets (lots of free ones too).
  • Digital version of lessons
  • Kids in the Know select PowerPoints  

Names for Body Parts K-3

  • Your body belongs to you. No one can touch you without your permission (consent)
  • The parts where your bathing suit covers are your private parts (genitals)
  • The only 3 situations when a safe adult can touch your private parts
    • to help you wash in the bath/shower
    • to help you wipe when learning to use the toilet
    • if you have an injury or a sore
  • Sexual abuse prevention strategy: students should be able to name and label their private parts including
    • vulva, clitoris, vagina, labia, ovaries
    • penis, testicles, scrotum
    • anus, chest/breast
  • No one can kiss you or put anything in your mouth without your permission. 
    • “quick and simple peck on the dimple” from your safe adult is ok with your permission
    • no long kisses or kisses from others with mouth open allowed

Resources

  • Books: 
    • ‘It’s Not the Stork’ pg 50-51 
    • ‘Body Smart Right from the Start’ pg 24-34
    • ‘What’s the Big Secret’ pg 1-15 
    • ‘Body Smart Right from the Start’ pg 5-23 
    • ‘Amazing You’ Pg 1-16 
    • ‘It’s Not the Stork’  pg 12-23
    • ‘My Body, What I Say Goes’ by Jayleen Sanders
Lessons
Our Amazing Bodies — Every Part Deserves a Proper Name
Kids in the Know Lessons
Google Slides Lesson K/1
Google Slides Lesson Gr 2/3

Feelings, Emotions and Instincts K-7

  • Incorporate EASE Anxiety Strategies, and SEL practices into daily routines
    • Evidence based CBT Therapy model 
  • Develop awareness: first of own feelings, then emotions in others
    • facial expressions, body language, tone of voice
  • Emotions: physical states in response to a stimuli, aroused before feelings, can be observed, intense but temporary 
    • joy, fear, enthusiasm, anger, lust, sadness, surprise, disgust
  • Feelings: mental reactions, caused by feelings, can be hidden, last longer, 
    • happiness, worry, contentment, bitterness, love, depression
  • “Name it to tame it”
  • Instincts are the feelings we get in our tummy. 
    • They are the wisest part of of whole body. 
    • They can sense danger before we can see, hear, smell, taste danger.
    • When we get butterfly feeling, or feel worried, unsure, sad, upset tummy, grossed out etc that is our instinct warning u. It’s like an alarm system
      • to leave, get out, get help, check in with a safe adult

Resources

Lessons
EASE Anxiety Mini Lessons K-7 or do full training through MDFD and Anxiety Canada
Kids Health Lesson
Kids in the Know Lessons

Safe, Unsafe & Secret touch K-3

  • Safe (with consent)
    • Hugs, kiss on the forehead, back rub, tuck in to bed, hold hands

  • Unsafe (illegal)
    • Kicking in genitals (which is not allowed unless self defense), pinch, slap, kick, push, wedgie, purple nurple (twisting someone’s nipple), tickling when you say stop

  • Secret (report to a safe adult)
    • someone tries to touch your private parts or tries to show you their private parts

    • Someone tries to show you pictures of things ‘not for kids’  or people without clothes on

    • Someone tickles your private parts

    • Someone tries to take pictures of your private parts or takes videos of your body parts without clothes on

    • Someone tells you to keep a secret about touch

Resources

Lessons
Kids in the Know Lessons
Google Slides Lesson K/1
Google Slides Lesson Gr 2/3

Safety Network, Keep and Speak Secrets K-3

  • How we act depends on what circle we’re in
  • Brainstorm levels of intimacy/circles (who is in each circle and what is appropriate/safe interaction for each)
    • self/private
    • hug
    • far away hug
    • handshake
    • wave
    • stranger
  • Students need to come up with 5 safe adults in their safety network
    • grown up (usually over 18)
    • responsible
    • has safe boundaries
    • cares about you and is safe
  • Keep secrets are like surprises that have a happy ending (you’re allowed to keep the secret for a short while)
  • Speak Secrets make you feel sad, worried, scared, unsure. Any secret about bodies, touching, pictures, computers, internet etc you must speak out to a safe adult

Resources

  • Circle Program via Destiny
  • Keep and Speak Secret handout from Kids in the Know
  • Read Storybook:  “Let’s Talk About Body Boundaries, Consent and Respect”
  • Body Safety Posters
Lessons
Kids in the Know Lessons
Google Slides Lesson K/1
Google Slides Lesson Gr 2/3

Assertiveness Skills K-3

  • If someone crosses a body boundary or does something unsafe you can use your body language, tone of voice, and words to make it stop
    • body language: stand tall, shoulders back, look in the eye, hand up 
    • tone of voice: clear, firm, loud
    • words: stop, i don’t like this, don’t, No! That’s private!
  • Teach kids that if they need to get away they can say “i have to go to the bathroom” or “i feel sick”
  • Passive, assertive, aggressive styles

Resources

Lessons
Kids in the Know Lessons
Google Slides Lesson K/1
Google Slides Lesson Gr 2/3

Puberty 4-7

  • All bodies start with similar anatomy in utero, forming from 8 weeks onward into “sex assigned at birth”: female, male, intersex
    • female: vulva, ovaries, clitoris. 
    • male: penis, scrotum, testicles. 
    • intersex: variations in reproductive or sex anatomy
  • Breasts and areolas, clitoris>penis, ovaries>testicles, labia>scrotum, urethra, anus, fallopian tubes>vas deferens, ova>sperm, semen/vaginal fluid
  • Puberty takes about 6 years to fully develop. Pituitary in brain stimulates production of estrogen and testosterone: Emotional, Social, Physical, Mental changes. (sleep hygiene), when to get help (8 dimensions activity)
    • Changes all bodies experience: hair in armpits/pubic area, sweat, body odor, oil production, acne, mood swings: mads/sads/glads, sex drive, self stimulation/masturbation
    • Changes due to estrogen (ovaries) breast dev’t, vaginal discharge, menstruation 
    • Changes due to testosterone (testicles): erections, wet dreams, voice changes, hair growth,  
      • Demo items in a hygiene kit
  • Some trans* folks may seek hormonal medical support to transition through puberty in a way that aligns with their gender identity
  • Demo use of menstrual products: pads, tampons etc
  • Hygiene: Bathing, managing body odor, oral care, preventing bladder/fungal infections, safe use of razors

Resources

Lessons
TeachingSexualHealth.ca 
Google Slides Puberty Gr 4-8
Am I Normal? Preteen Lesson

HONORING DIVERSITY & CARING BEHAVIOURS IN FAMILIES AND GROUPS K-3

  • All families are different
    • Celebrate variations which could include: In care, 2 dads, 2 moms, single parent, mom and dad, two households (divorced), widowed, live with grandparents etc
  • Each person has differences that make them unique and who they are. Affirm and celebrate the diversity of identities
    • Every person has an assigned sex at birth, a gender identity, are affected by  gender stereotypes, have gender expressions, and a sexual orientation (who they love/choose as a partner/marry)
  • Challenge gender norms and stereotypes (including masculinity and femininity, the way we group kids, gender expression: hair/clothes/names)
    • How are people treated when they don’t fit into rigid categories created by society
  • Consequences of bullying, discrimination, stereotyping

Resources

INFLUENCES ON IDENTITY: Gender, Sex, Orientation 4-7

  • Factors which influence our identity (who we are by nature/biology, environmental factors, and who we learn to be based on culture/social constructs)
  • Understand the various independent components of one’s identity: every person has an assigned sex at birth, a gender identity, are affected by  gender stereotypes, have gender expression, and a sexual orientation
  • Critically analyze how one’s ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ are socially constructed
  • Challenge gender norms and stereotypes (including masculinity and femininity)
  • Acknowledge limitations of binary categories we have placed on human sexuality (which is much more complex than 2 categories)
  • How are people treated when they don’t fit into rigid categories created by society
  • Affirm and celebrate the diversity of identities, expressions, and orientations
  • Consequences of bullying, discrimination, stereotyping (focus on homophobia, transphobia)

Resources

RESPONDING TO DISCRIMINATION, STEREOTYPING, RACISM (3-7)

  • Advocating for the well-beings of others connects us to your community
  • Acknowledge difference, challenge intolerance, seize teachable moments, encourage activism 
  • Terms:
    • Discrimination: unjust treatment due to race/sex/age 
    • Stereotyping: a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing.
      • Stereotypes make one story become the only story 
      • Media’s influence on common stereotypes and preconceived notions
    • Racism: prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one’s own race is superior.
      • how systemic racism works
  • Bullying has psychological, physical, social, academic effects
  • How to be an Upstander, respond and be assertive

Resources

Lessons
TeachingSexualHealth.ca
Lesson on Discrimination
Gr 3-6/6-8+ Mini Lessons

Healthy Frienships 3-7

  • Healthy standards (communication, respect, trust, etc.)
  • How to have healthy friendships
  • Personal boundaries and how to assert them
  • Unhealthy friendships: (lie, pressure, guilt, control, isolate, exclude, etc.)
  • Conflict resolution skills

Resources

Lessons
TeachingSexualHealth.ca
Kids in the Know Power Points Gr 3/4  and 5/6 and 7/8 
Importance of Friendship Gr 6/7 
Getting Along Gr 6-8  
Conflict Resolution Gr 6-8

Healthy Relationships Grade 7

  • How relationships change and evolve
  • Different types of relationships: friendship, dating, committed, monogamous etc
  • Healthy standards (consent, communication, respect, trust, etc.)
  • How to have healthy friendships
  • Personal boundaries and how to assert them
  • Unhealthy relationships, reg flags: lie, cheat, pressure, guilt, control, isolate, etc.)
  • Dating violence
  • Lust vs love vs control
  • Anger as a secondary emotion
  • How to get out of an unhealthy relationship/break up
  • Conflict resolution skills

Resources

Lessons
TeachingSexualHealth.ca
Google Slides Healthy Relationships Gr 7-10
Kids in the Know Power Points Gr 7/8 
Differing Abilities Healthy Relationships 
Respectful Futures: Healthy Relationships Modules

STRATEGIES TO USE IN POTENTIALLY ABUSIVE, UNSAFE, EXPLOITATIVE SITUATIONS K-3

  • Communication skills:
    • negotiating boundaries
    • being assertive
    • passive
    • aggressive
  • Delay and Refusal skills
  • Lures/tricks of exploiters
  • Using instincts to sense danger
  • Using technology: 
    • privacy online
    • consent
    • how to report and get help

Resources

Lessons
Kids in the Know Lessons
Kids in the Know PowerPoints: Friendships and Boundaries Gr 3-8 

STRATEGIES TO USE IN POTENTIALLY ABUSIVE, UNSAFE, EXPLOITATIVE SITUATIONS 4-7

  • Communication skills:
    • negotiating boundaries
    • being assertive
    • passive
    • aggressive
  • Delay and Refusal skills
  • The cycle of abuse: reporting, getting help
  • Using instincts to sense danger
  • lures/tricks of exploiters
  • Using technology: 
    • sexting
      • it is a crime to share private images w/o consent
    • privacy online
    • consent
    • exploitation
    • how to report and get help

Resources

Lessons
TeachingSexualHealth.ca
Kids in the Know PowerPoint: Sextortion Gr 6/7
Kids in the Know PowerPoint: Friendships and Boundaries Gr 3/4, 5/6, and 7/8
Kids in the Know Lessons

Consent 6-7

  • Consent is giving/asking for permission for something to happen
    • Any sexual activity requires consent: including kissing, touching etc.
    • Grabbing, touching, stalking, exposing to pornography etc. all can be considered sexual assault 
    • People under 12 cannot consent to any sexual activity
    • People under 18 are protected by age of consent laws
  • Age, power, authority, substance use are some determining factors
  • An enthusiastic YES! What it is, looks like, sounds like, how to negotiate consent, can be retracted
  • What is isn’t: silence, no, body language, alcohol/drug facilitated sexual activity (date rape)
  • Alcohol: you can’t consent if drunk/high (signs of intoxication: slurring, stumbling, etc.)
  • Consent refers to sharing of private pictures: you cannot share a picture someone sent you unless they give consent. If they ask you to delete a private pic you must.
  • Other activities that are private: sleeping, changing, showering, going to the bathroom: someone cannot watch you do these things, take pictures of you or or touch you (while sleeping etc)

Resources

MEDIA LITERACY: PORNOGRAPHY 4-7

  • Healthy relationships are based on trust, respect, communication, and consent: all things that pornography lacks, and often involves the exploitation of someone (often females).
  • Not a realistic guide for what real life partners would really want/expect
  • Porn is like a sports highlight reel of a sports event (only focused on exciting moments (simulated)
  • In recent years pornography has shown more violent, degrading, abusive, non-consensual acts, and choking, name calling, slapping etc which viewers try to replicate/mirror in their real lives. 
  • Damage caused by pornography may include: 
    • peer to peer sexual abuse of children,  
    • pornography contributes to rape and sexual violence, misogyny 
    • addiction (signs of addiction)
    • body dismorphia
    • misunderstanding of connection, intimacy and pleasure
    • children exposed to pornography may act out sexually with other children, pornography shapes attitudes and values, interferes with a child’s development and identity. 
  • It affects the reward centre in the brain: creating new pathways seeking dopamine if exposed as brain is developing.
  • Q: How does pornography change the way teens think about sex?

Resources

Lessons
TeachingSexualHealth.ca
Use http://mediasmarts.ca/teacher-resources
Lesson: I heard it on the Internet!? Reliable sources of health information
3 Page Printable: summary/lesson/word sort/discussion questions for pornography impact lesson

Communicable/Non-Communicable Diseases 4-5

Resources

Lessons
Northern Health Communicable Diseases Lessons Page 27 and 49 
W.H.O. https://www.who.int/health-topics/#C

Sexual Decision Making Grade 7

Making healthy and safe decisions in your life requires knowledge and understanding. You need to know yourself and what your standards are. You also need to know what the qualities are in a healthy relationship. Sexual decision making means you understand the pros and cons of your choices and are able to lower your risks with the information you have.

  • Get to really know your personal and family values
  • Develop your own standards
  • Practice asserting your boundaries
  • Be able to communicate worries, hopes, fear, risks with your partner
  • Knowing when you are ready (mentally, emotionally, physically, relationship wise)
  • Knowing if your partner is ready (asking for consent!!)
  • Practice ways out of unhealthy or risky situations
  • Prevent any potential harm (STIs or unplanned pregnancies)
  • Access to healthcare 
    • Options for Sexual Health, NAC Youth Clinic, School Wellness Centres, Walk in Clinics, Doctors, Grant Avenue Youth Clinic etc

Resources

Reproductive System 6-7

Human reproduction is any form of sexual reproduction resulting in human fertilization. It typically involves sexual intercourse between a man and a woman or the female reproductive system and male reproductive system. During sexual intercourse, the interaction between the male and female reproductive systems results in fertilization of the ovum by the sperm.

Review reproductive, endocrine, excretory

The parts you have (ovaries or testicles) will determine the changes your body goes through during puberty

  • Start puberty between 8-16, development takes approx 6 years
  • Sexual identity: chart Sex Assigned @ Birth vs Gender Identity vs Orientation vs  (trans resources for students and families)
  • Chart (using inclusive lang) comparing body changes that happen due to testosterone/testicles or due to estrogen/ovaries, demo a hygiene kit
  • For some trans people they will take hormone suppressants and for some they will take hormones which match their gender identity during puberty

Ovaries: estrogen: hips widen, breasts, menstruation (videos on www.amaze.org)

  • Periods 3-8 days about 1/month, pms, cramps, pads/tampons, hymen, vaginal discharge

Testicles: testosterone: hair, voice, erections/ejaculation (videos on www.Amaze.org)

  • Erections happen for many reasons: tired, no reason, have to pee, thinking about something exciting, testicular health

These hormones also cause: mads/sads/glads

Increase sex drive: how to manage feelings/emotions (do no harm)

  • Personal boundaries (pg 21 KIK gr 7 physical, social, emotional, sexual)
  • Assertiveness skills (pg 56 KIK gr 7 be direct, leave, humour, excuse, ignore, repeat, blame)
    • See ‘Skills Videos’ on Scope and Sequence
  • Normal to be curious: 
    • Porn on developing brain (see website ‘media influences: porn literacy)
    • Affects new dopamine pathways, increase sexual violence, models abusive/exploitative sexual relationships

Resources

Lessons

Practices The Protect Against Life Threatening Communicable Diseases & STIs 6-7

  • HIV/AIDS
  • Hepatitis B and C
  • Meningococcal C

Practices:

  • Avoid exposure to fluids that transmit disease
    • safe use of needles
    • (meningitis) saliva/kissing/oral fluids: hand washing, covering mouth when coughing, washing hands after sneezing and/or coughing, staying away from others when sick, not sharing liquids, lip chap/gloss, cigarettes/vapes
    • (STIs) blood, breastmilk, vaginal fluid, semen, rectal fluid: abstain, limit number of sexual partners in your life, get tested for STIs regularly, get vaccines, condoms

CONDOMS

  • Internal and external condoms (vaginal or anal sex) and dental dams (oral sex)
  • Reduces risk significantly during oral, vaginal or anal sex of most STIs and pregnancy
  • What is the method, instruction, effectiveness, material for each
    • Highlight: latex/polyurethane prevent STIs and pregnancy, sheepskin does not protect against HIV
  • Use of lubrication during vaginal or anal sex to increase effectiveness
  • Condoms DO break if not used properly
  • Must be used for vaginal/anal sex EVERY TIME unless:
    – Want to get pregnant
    – Have been tested for STIs and in a monogamous relationship and (if having vaginal sex) female is on birth control
  • Condoms are free at Options for Sexual Health, or the school wellness centres, or the NAC youth clinic.

Resources

TYPES OF TOUCH AND RISKS: STIs and PREGNANCY 6-7

Safe, healthy touch is what all humans need to thrive. Things like hugs, cuddles, holding someone you love, a kiss of the forehead. The way safe touch makes us feel: safe, loved, cared for. All touch must be consensual: no one can touch your body without your permission (an enthusiastic Yes!)

There are many ways to show you care for someone without touch: Quality time together, write a note, text, go on a walk together, bring them flowers, eat together etc…

Sexual touch may feel good but has some serious risks including: unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), pain and regret, to name a few. It is up to each person to make healthy decisions and choices that will reduce their risks.

What touch is unsafe touch= Causes pain, has risk of virus/bacterial infections(STI), is non-consensual, damages body in any way

Levels of Risk for STIs With Each Type of Touch:

The only 100% way to not be at risk is to abstain (not to do it), or to touch in ways that don’t involve bodily fluids. The healthiest choice for young people is to abstain as long as possible. Most people don’t become sexually active until after high school (McCreary Survey 2013), and for many, they wait until they are in long term relationships and for some they wait until they are married. Some people are asexual, meaning they do not have sexual feelings for others and they may choose not to have sex. Some choose not to be sexually active for other reasons.

Resources

SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS (STIs) 6-7

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are diseases and infections that are spread through sexual touch. They are only preventable by abstaining, but one can lower their risk of contracting one by: avoiding high risk touch, knowing signs and symptoms, getting tested regularly, ensuring partner is tested, limiting number of partners, and using condoms.

Statistics and prevalence: approx. 5 in 6 people will get an STI in their lifetime, 8 in 10 will get HPV, 1 in 4 Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV2) for example. STIs are not linked to cleanliness, promiscuity, appearance, reputation (stigma). If you are sexually active, go get checked regularly (STI test for free at a Doctor or clinic)

Viral: (No cure but symptoms can be managed in some cases with medications) Hepatitis, HIV, Herpes (HSV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)

Bacterial: (Curable) Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Bacterial Vaginosis (BV), Trichomoniasis

Infestations: (Curable) Scabies, Pubic Lice

Transmission: Skin to fluid (mucus membranes: mouth, eye, vulva, anus, penis); Exchange of Fluids (semen, vaginal fluid, rectal fluid, blood, breast milk); Proximity (skin to skin rubbing: HSV, HPV)

Symptoms: Ranging from none (likely), to pain, lumps, sores, abnormal discharge, strong odor, warts, rash, itching

Short and Long Term Consequences: embarrassment, pain, cancer (throat, anal, penile, cervical), infertility, death

Prevention:

  • Abstain
  • PAP test: for those with vulvas, when sexually active or after age 24
  • HPV and Gardasil vaccines all genders
    • free in school vaccinations for grade 6 (male and female), or grade 9 (female)
    • free at Grant Avenue Health Clinic for females under 23 and those having higher risk sex
    • up to $500 at the Doctor (may be covered by some health plans)
  • STI testing (always free at Options for Sexual Health, Doctor, Walk In Clinic)
  • Testing often done via swab, urine sample or blood test
  • New testing methods include self-swab for Chlamydia/Gonorrhea
  • Barrier methods (latex or polyurethane internal/external condoms, dental dams)
  • Limiting number of sexual partners

Resources

Puberty

  • Anatomy of reproductive, hormonal, and excretory systems
    All bodies start with similar anatomy in utero, forming from 8 weeks onward into “sex assigned at birth”: female, male, intersex
  • Breasts and areolas, clitoris>penis, ovaries>testicles, labia>scrotum, urethra, anus, fallopian tubes>vas deferens, ova>sperm, semen/vaginal fluid
  • Including changes in: hair, sweat, body odor, voice, oil production, acne, mood swings, breast dev’t, discharge, erections, wet dreams, menstruation, increased sex drive, masturbation, sex drive
    • Demo items in a hygiene kit
  • Some trans* folks may seek hormonal medical support to transition through puberty in a way that aligns with their gender identity
  • How to do a testicular self-examination
  • Demo use of menstrual products: pads, tampons etc
  • Hygiene: Bathing, managing body odor, oral care, preventing bladder/fungal infections, safe hair removal/management

Resources

Lessons
TeachingSexualHealth.ca
Google Slides PubertyGr 4-8
Google Slides Puberty, Mental Well being Gr 9-12

INFLUENCES ON IDENTITY: Gender, Sex, Orientation

  • Factors which influence our identity (who we are by nature/biology, environmental factors, and who we learn to be based on culture/social constructs)
  • Understand the various independent components of one’s identity: every person has an assigned sex at birth, a gender identity, are affected by  gender stereotypes, have gender expression, and a sexual orientation
  • Critically analyze how one’s ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ are socially constructed
  • Challenge gender norms and stereotypes (including masculinity and femininity)
  • Acknowledge limitations of binary categories we have placed on human sexuality (which is much more complex than 2 categories)
  • How are people treated when they don’t fit into rigid categories created by society
  • Affirm and celebrate the diversity of identities, expressions, and orientations
  • Consequences of bullying, discrimination, stereotyping (focus on homophobia, transphobia)

Resources

RESPONDING TO DISCRIMINATION, STEREOTYPING, RACISM

  • Advocating for the well-beings of others connects us to your community
  • Acknowledge difference, challenge intolerance, seize teachable moments, encourage activism 
  • Terms:
    • Discrimination: unjust treatment due to race/sex/age 
    • Stereotyping: a widely held but fixed and oversimplified image or idea of a particular type of person or thing.
      • Stereotypes make one story become the only story 
      • Media’s influence on common stereotypes and preconceived notions
    • Racism: prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one’s own race is superior.
      • how systemic racism works
  • Bullying has psychological, physical, social, academic effects
  • How to be an Upstander, respond and be assertive

Resources

Lessons


SEXUAL VIOLENCE: Harassment, Assault, Rape

  • In Canada, and in BC schools it is you RIGHT to feel safe. The law is clear on what is legal or not.
  • Examples of: Harassment, stalking, exploitation, abuse, assault
  • Beliefs and misconceptions, victim blaming, factors why many assaults go unreported
  • Bystander effect, mob mentality, famous examples (Kitty Genovese, Vancouver Riots etc.) of them
  • How to be an Upstander, respond and be assertive


Resources

STRATEGIES TO USE IN POTENTIALLY ABUSIVE, UNSAFE, EXPLOITATIVE SITUATIONS

  • Communication skills:
    • negotiating boundaries
    • being assertive
    • passive
    • aggressive
  • Delay and Refusal skills
  • The cycle of abuse: reporting, getting help
  • Using instincts to sense danger
  • Using technology: 
    • lures/tricks of exploiters
    • sexting
      • it is a crime to share private images w/o consent
    • privacy online
    • consent
    • exploitation
    • how to report and get help

Resources

Lessons
TeachingSexualHealth.ca
Kids in the Know PowerPoint: Sextortion

HEALTHY RELATIONSHIPS

  • Healthy standards (consent, communication, respect, trust, etc.)
  • How to have healthy friendships
  • Personal boundaries and how to assert them
  • Unhealthy relationships, reg flags: lie, cheat, pressure, guilt, control, isolate, etc.)
  • Dating violence
  • Lust vs love vs control
  • Anger as a secondary emotion
  • How to get out of an unhealthy relationship/break up
  • Conflict resolution skills

Resources

Lessons
TeachingSexualHealth.ca
Google Slides Healthy Relationships Gr 7-10
Kids in the Know Power Points Gr 7/8 and 9/10
Respectful Futures: Healthy Relationships Modules

SEXUAL DECISION MAKING

Making healthy and safe decisions in your life requires knowledge and understanding. You need to know yourself and what your standards are. You also need to know what the qualities are in a healthy relationship. Sexual decision making means you understand the pros and cons of your choices and are able to lower your risks with the information you have.

  • Get to really know your personal and family values
  • Develop your own standards
  • Practice asserting your boundaries
  • Be able to communicate worries, hopes, fear, risks with your partner
  • Knowing when you are ready (mentally, emotionally, physically, relationship wise)
  • Knowing if your partner is ready (asking for consent!!)
  • Practice ways out of unhealthy or risky situations
  • Prevent any potential harm (STIs or unplanned pregnancies)
  • Access to healthcare 
    • Options for Sexual Health, NAC Youth Clinic, School Wellness Centres, Walk in Clinics, Doctors, Grant Avenue Youth Clinic etc

Resources

Lessons
TeachingSexualHealth.ca
Google Slides Gr 8-10+ Physical Intimacy, STIs and Pregnancy Prevention
Kids in the Know Power Points Gr 7/8 and 9/10

Consent

  • Consent is giving/asking for permission for something to happen
    • Any sexual activity requires consent: including kissing, touching etc.
    • Grabbing, touching, stalking, exposing to pornography etc. all can be considered sexual assault 
    • People under 12 cannot consent to any sexual activity
    • People under 18 are protected by age of consent laws
  • Age, power, authority, substance use are some determining factors
  • An enthusiastic YES! What it is, looks like, sounds like, how to negotiate consent, can be retracted
  • What is isn’t: silence, no, body language, alcohol/drug facilitated sexual activity (date rape)
  • Alcohol: you can’t consent if drunk/high (signs of intoxication: slurring, stumbling, etc.)

Resources

Lessons
TeachingSexualHealth.ca
Google Slides Gr 8-10 Consent and Sexual Violence
Kids in the Know Power Points Gr 7/8 and 9/10

CONDOMS & BARRIERS

  • Internal and external condoms (vaginal or anal sex) and dental dams (oral sex)
  • Reduces risk significantly during oral, vaginal or anal sex of most STIs and pregnancy
  • What is the method, instruction, effectiveness, material for each
    • Highlight: latex/polyurethane prevent STIs and pregnancy, sheepskin does not protect against HIV
  • Use of lubrication during vaginal or anal sex to increase effectiveness
  • Condoms DO break if not used properly
  • Must be used for vaginal/anal sex EVERY TIME unless:
    – Want to get pregnant
    – Have been tested for STIs and in a monogamous relationship and (if having vaginal sex) female is on birth control 
  • Condoms are free at Options for Sexual Health, or the school wellness centres, or the NAC youth clinic.

Resources

Lessons
TeachingSexualHealth.ca
Google Slides Gr 8-10+ Physical Intimacy, STIs and Pregnancy Prevention

SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS (STIs)

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are diseases and infections that are spread through sexual touch. They are only preventable by abstaining, but one can lower their risk of contracting one by: avoiding high risk touch, knowing signs and symptoms, getting tested regularly, ensuring partner is tested, limiting number of partners, and using condoms.

Statistics and prevalence: approx. 5 in 6 people will get an STI in their lifetime, 8 in 10 will get HPV, 1 in 4 Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV2) for example. STIs are not linked to cleanliness, promiscuity, appearance, reputation (stigma). If you are sexually active, go get checked regularly (STI test for free at a Doctor or clinic)

Viral: (No cure but symptoms can be managed in some cases with medications) Hepatitis, HIV, Herpes (HSV), Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)

Bacterial: (Curable) Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Bacterial Vaginosis (BV), Trichomoniasis

Infestations: (Curable) Scabies, Pubic Lice

Transmission: Skin to fluid (mucus membranes: mouth, eye, vulva, anus, penis); Exchange of Fluids (semen, vaginal fluid, rectal fluid, blood, breast milk); Proximity (skin to skin rubbing: HSV, HPV)

Symptoms: Ranging from none (likely), to pain, lumps, sores, abnormal discharge, strong odor, warts, rash, itching

Short and Long Term Consequences: embarrassment, pain, cancer (throat, anal, penile, cervical), infertility, death

Prevention:

  • Abstain
  • PAP test: for those with vulvas, when sexually active or after age 24
  • HPV and Gardasil vaccines all genders
    • free in school vaccinations for grade 6 (male and female), or grade 9 (female)
    • free at Grant Avenue Health Clinic for females under 23 and those having higher risk sex
    • up to $500 at the Doctor (may be covered by some health plans)
  • STI testing (always free at Options for Sexual Health, Doctor, Walk In Clinic)
  • Testing often done via swab, urine sample or blood test
  • New testing methods include self-swab for Chlamydia/Gonorrhea
  • Barrier methods (latex or polyurethane internal/external condoms, dental dams)
  • Limiting number of sexual partners

Resources

Lessons
TeachingSexualHealth.ca
Google Slides Gr 8-10+ Physical Intimacy, STIs and Pregnancy Prevention

TYPES OF TOUCH AND RISKS: STIs and PREGNANCY

Safe, healthy touch is what all humans need to thrive. Things like hugs, cuddles, holding someone you love, a kiss of the forehead. The way safe touch makes us feel: safe, loved, cared for. All touch must be consensual: no one can touch your body without your permission (an enthusiastic Yes!)

There are many ways to show you care for someone without touch: Quality time together, write a note, text, go on a walk together, bring them flowers, eat together etc…

Sexual touch may feel good but has some serious risks including: unplanned pregnancies, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), pain and regret, to name a few. It is up to each person to make healthy decisions and choices that will reduce their risks.

What touch is unsafe touch= Causes pain, has risk of virus/bacterial infections(STI), is non-consensual, damages body in any way

Levels of Risk for STIs With Each Type of Touch:

The only 100% way to not be at risk is to abstain (not to do it), or to touch in ways that don’t involve bodily fluids. The healthiest choice for young people is to abstain as long as possible. Most people don’t become sexually active until after high school (McCreary Survey 2013), and for many, they wait until they are in long term relationships and for some they wait until they are married. Some people are asexual, meaning they do not have sexual feelings for others and they may choose not to have sex. Some choose not to be sexually active for other reasons.

Resources

Lessons
TeachingSexualHealth.ca
Google Slides Gr 8-10+ Physical Intimacy, STIs and Pregnancy Prevention

MEDIA LITERACY: PORNOGRAPHY

  • Healthy relationships are based on trust, respect, communication, and consent: all things that pornography lacks, and often involves the exploitation of someone (often females).
  • Not a realistic guide for what real life partners would really want/expect
  • Porn is like a sports highlight reel of a sports event (only focused on exciting moments (simulated)
  • In recent years pornography has shown more violent, degrading, abusive, non-consensual acts, and choking, name calling, slapping etc which viewers try to replicate/mirror in their real lives. 
  • Damage caused by pornography may include: 
    • peer to peer sexual abuse of children,  
    • pornography contributes to rape and sexual violence, misogyny 
    • addiction (signs of addiction)
    • body dismorphia
    • misunderstanding of connection, intimacy and pleasure
    • children exposed to pornography may act out sexually with other children, pornography shapes attitudes and values, interferes with a child’s development and identity. 
  • It affects the reward centre in the brain: creating new pathways seeking dopamine if exposed as brain is developing.
  • Q: How does pornography change the way teens think about sex?

Resources

Lessons
TeachingSexualHealth.ca
Use http://mediasmarts.ca/teacher-resources
Lesson: I heard it on the Internet!? Reliable sources of health information
3 Page Printable: summary/lesson/word sort/discussion questions for pornography impact lesson 

CONTRACEPTION/BIRTH CONTROL: Unplanned Pregnancy Prevention

Preventing unplanned pregnancies: birth control is extremely effective if used as directed

Method, instruction,  actual use effectiveness, advantages/disadvantages https://www.optionsforsexualhealth.org/birth-control-pregnancy/birth-control-options

Show effectiveness chart and quote ‘actual use’ not ‘perfect use’ rates

Start with most effective and work way down

  • Hormonal (works by: prevent release of ovum, thicken cervical fluid, changing lining of uterus) – IUD (progestin-Mirena 99.3%); Depo-shot (progestin 97%); Patch (estrogen/progestin 92%); Nuva Ring (progestin and estrogen 92%); Pill (estrogen/progestin or just progestin 91%); Copper IUD 99.3 %
  • Barrier: Condoms keep sperm from entering vagina (internal 79%) and external (82%)
  • Withdrawal method can help lower risk of pregnancy especially when used in addition to another method-should not be relied on its own!!)

Emergency contraception * (97.3%)

  • ‘Contingency One’ or ‘Plan B’: Lovonorgestrel (w/i 3 days but preferably w/i 12 hours after unprotected sex: most effective the sooner it’s taken)
    • Thickens cervical fluid/prevents release of ova (egg)
    • Ex: Plan B effectiveness (up to 95%), accessibility (no prescription needed: go to pharmacy), cost $30
    • Copper IUD inserted w/i 7 days: creating inhospitable environment for sperm preventing fertilization

People do not need parental consent to go to a clinic/doctor, and get medical treatment or prescriptions. It is confidential.

Resources


Lessons
TeachingSexualHealth.ca
Google Slides Gr 8-10+ Physical Intimacy, STIs and Pregnancy Prevention

UNPLANNED PREGNANCY OPTIONS

  • Nearly 1 in 2 pregnancies in Canada are unplanned.
  • Understanding Options: Parenting, Adoption, Medical and surgical abortion
  • Options: Brainstorm pros, cons of each, understand personal values related to each, understand laws/rights of each: Note: Abortions in B.C. are free, legal, and safe
  • Medical Abortion: There are a few options including Mifegymiso which means one can get medication to end pregnancy from pharmacy within the first 7 weeks of pregnancy, in pill form, can be taken in privacy of own home. Doctor must write a prescription. To find a local Dr. who is trained in medical abortion please call 1-800-sex-sense (1-800-739-7367) or  the Pregnancy Option Line 1-888-875-3163
  • Surgical Abortion: usually within 12-14 weeks but up to 20 weeks performed  in a medical clinic or hospital.
  • Rights and Laws The person who is pregnant is the only person can only make choice to have/not have abortion. Cost (covered/free with care card number), accessibility in Canada (legal and safe), and confidential (information will not be shared with anyone else).

Resources

  • Call Pregnancy Option Line (pro-choice) 1-888-875-3163
  • Call Options for Sexual Health Sex-Sense Line (pro-choice) 1-800-739-7367

*Note Crossroads Pregnancy Centre and Crisis Pregnancy Centre are not Pro-Choice establishments. They do not provide science based, unbiased information. They are not a vetted resource for students.

Lessons
TeachingSexualHealth.ca
Google Slides Gr 8-10+ Physical Intimacy, STIs and Pregnancy Prevention